This course covers the fundamental principles of the immune systems that deal with both innate and adaptive responses in vertebrates. Emphasis on the study of the structures and functions of the immune systems in relationship to the roles of antigen-antibody responses, immune-competent cells and immunity to infectious diseases. Molecular and cellular basis of immunological concepts is a part of this course. Topics include antigen and antigenic determinant, Antigen-antibody reaction, antibody structure and formation, cellular and humoral response, complement system, inflammation, allergens and hypersensitivity reaction. Laboratory exercises focus on experiment protocols on laboratory antigen-antibody reaction, monoclonal antibody formation, serological reaction, complement reaction, immunocytochemistry, immunoassays (ELISA), and selected techniques. Prerequisite(s): A minimum grade of C in the following courses: BIOL 3100 and BIOL 3500K.